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Kawasaki Ki-22

Kawasaki Ki-22


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Kawasaki Ki-22

El Kawasaki Ki-22 fue uno de los tres diseños para un bombardero pesado producido en respuesta a una especificación del ejército japonés emitida el 15 de febrero de 1936. Los diseños rivales Nakajima Ki-19 y Mitsubishi Ki-21 alcanzaron la etapa de prototipo, y el Mitsubishi Ki -21 entró en producción como el Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber, pero el Kawasaki Ki-22 nunca progresó más allá de la etapa de diseño.


Este modelo ultradeportivo de tres plazas estaba equipado con un motor de cuatro cilindros y cuatro tiempos refrigerado por líquido de 1.498 cc combinado con un sobrealimentador tipo Roots que proporcionaba una alta presión de sobrealimentación incluso a bajas revoluciones. El motor contaba con una potencia máxima de 245 CV.

En octubre de 1972, un artículo de un periódico en The San Diego Union describió una "pequeña embarcación con manubrios similares a los de una motocicleta, detrás de los cuales uno se para y conduce el vehículo a través de la superficie del agua, como un nuevo tipo de scooter acuático". Esta embarcación fue el prototipo del Jet Ski que Kawasaki desarrolló a partir de una idea presentada por el inventor estadounidense Clayton Jacobson II.
En 1973, Kawasaki lanzó la primera moto acuática Jet Ski de producción masiva del mundo, la JS400, que creó un nuevo mercado para motos acuáticas (PWC), principalmente en los Estados Unidos. Las motos acuáticas se convirtieron rápidamente en un vehículo recreativo gracias a su excelente maniobrabilidad en el agua.

El jet ski se convirtió en un deporte popular y pronto se institucionalizó con el establecimiento de una asociación deportiva en 1978.
El primer modelo estaba propulsado por una versión modificada de un motor de dos tiempos para motos de nieve y tenía una cilindrada de 398 cc y una potencia de 26 CV. También era un tipo de pie, al igual que todos los demás modelos en la historia temprana del Jet Ski. Kawasaki amplió su gama de modelos solo con este tipo hasta finales de la década de 1980. Pero cuando aparecieron competidores en el mercado con modelos sentados (llamados "runabout"), la competencia obligó a Kawasaki a agregar modelos sentados a su línea también. Además,

la introducción de estrictas regulaciones ambientales en la década de 1990 dio a los ingenieros más obstáculos tecnológicos que superar. Para que el Jet Ski cumpla con las normas, Kawasaki introdujo un motor de inyección directa en 2000 y también un motor de cuatro tiempos en 2003. Los modelos insignia de hoy cuentan con un motor de cuatro tiempos de 1.498 cc con una potencia de 310 CV.
Hay un libro que describe la historia del Jet Ski y analiza su impacto en la vida de las personas. Como ilustra el título del libro, Life, Liberty, and the Small-Bore Engine, la moto de agua de Kawasaki creó un nuevo estilo de vida.


Mục lục

Việc thiết kế chiếc Ki-32 được Kawasaki bắt đầu từ tháng 5 năm 1936, cạnh tranh cùng Mitsubishi để sản xuất một chiếc máy bay ném bom hạng nhẹ nhằm thay thế chiếc Kawasaki lc hậu. Chiếc nguyên mẫu bay lần đầu tiên vào tháng 3 năm 1937, và có thêm bảy chiếc nữa được sản xuất. Một số vấn đề nảy sinh, đặc biệt là việc làm mát động cơ và thời gian cần thiết để khắc phục lỗi kéo dài khiến thiết kế của hãng Mitsubishi, chiếc kin-30, được. Cho dù như thế, dưới áp lực cần có thêm nhiều máy bay trong Chiến tranh Trung-Nhật, vốn đã diễn ra trên diện rộng từ tháng 7 năm 1937, khiến phải đưa chiếc hn x louấo s thủ của mình.

Chiếc Ki-32 được đưa vào sản xuất hàng loạt từ năm 1938 dưới tên gọi Máy bay Ném bom Hạng nhẹ một động cơ Lục quân Kiểu 98, và được đưa ra hoạt động ngoài mặt trận cùng Không lực Lục quân Đế quốc Nhật Bản đến tận năm 1942. Kawasaki đã sản xuất được 854 chiếc Ki-32 cho cđến kến kến.

Kiểu máy bay này đã tham gia Chiến tranh Trung-Nhật, và hoạt động cuối cùng của nó là ném bom các vị trí đối phương trong cuộc tấn công Hồng Kông. Ki-32 cũng được cung cấp cho Không quân Mãn Châu Quốc để thay thế những chiếc máy bay ném bom hạng nhẹ Kawasaki Type 88 / KDA-2 đã lạc hậu và nó được lực lượng này sử dụn cho ng.


Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 01 de julio de 2003, 15:46

En una nueva competencia de caza organizada por el Ejército en 1934, en la que Mitsubishi no participó inicialmente, Nakajima presentó el Ki-11, un monoplano de ala baja con un tren de aterrizaje fijo no retráctil, que se parecía mucho al Boeing P-26. . La entrada de Kawasaki fue un biplano sesquiplano, el Ki-10. El Ki-11 era ligeramente superior al Ki-10 en velocidad, pero el Ki-10 era más maniobrable. El último avión, sin embargo, fue aceptado por el Ejército como el Type 95 Fighter, pero sin mucho entusiasmo.

En ese momento, el prototipo de caza de la Armada Ka-14 9-Shi de Mitsubishi mostraba un rendimiento sobresaliente y no solo capturó el respeto de la Armada, sino también del Ejército. Con el consentimiento de la Marina, el Ejército firmó un contrato con Mitsubishi para una versión modificada del 9-Shi Fighter para su evaluación, que se convirtió en el Ki-18. Las principales diferencias entre este y el modelo original de la Armada giraban en torno a varios cambios de equipos y sistemas dictados por el Ejército. Los cambios del modelo de la Armada incluyeron invertir la dirección del movimiento del acelerador (en el Ejército, el avance estaba inactivo) y sustituir las ametralladoras estándar del Ejército. Esta inversión del movimiento del acelerador probablemente se debió a la influencia francesa anterior.

El Ki-18 era un monoplano de ala baja de construcción totalmente metálica con superficies de control cubiertas de tela. Fue propulsado por un Kotobuki 5 radial de nueve cilindros, con 550 hp para el despegue y 600 hp a 3.100 m (9.185 pies), impulsando una hélice de madera de paso fijo de dos palas, el Ki-18 introdujo un largo -Cubierta del motor de acordes, timón agrandado y ruedas principales y espadas más grandes.

El nuevo avión se completó en agosto de 1935 y se probó en el Instituto de Investigación Técnica Aérea de Tachikawa y más tarde en la Escuela de Vuelo del Ejército de Akeno durante el otoño y el invierno de 1935. A principios de 1936, el Kotobuki 5 se cambió por el Kotobuki. 3, con 640 hp para despegue y 715 hp a 2.800 m (11.485 pies) por sugerencia del capitán Oujira Matsumura, instructor en Akeno. El Kotobuki 3 de transmisión directa parecía ser una preferencia del Ejército. Durante estas pruebas, realizadas principalmente por el capitán Akita, se registró una velocidad máxima de 444 km / h (276 mph) a 3.050 m (10.000 pies), y la aeronave pudo ascender a 5.000 m (16.404 pies) en 6 minutos. 25,8 segundos: un ritmo excepcional. Estas notables pruebas continuaron hasta que el Ki-18 sufrió graves daños en un accidente de aterrizaje.

Las opiniones de quienes volaron la aeronave fueron que la estabilidad y el control podrían mejorarse, pero no se hicieron cambios. Sin embargo, mientras el Ki-18 estaba siendo evaluado en la Escuela de Vuelo Akeno, obtuvo excelentes calificaciones en todos los aspectos y se solicitó que se produjeran más modelos. Las recomendaciones de Akeno fueron contrarrestadas por el Instituto de Investigaciones Técnicas del Aire expresando su descontento con el motor que calificó como poco confiable. Apoyando esta afirmación, la organización superior, el Cuartel General Aéreo del Ejército, concluyó que el Ki-18 tenía un rendimiento insuficiente para ser aceptado como un caza del Ejército. Por lo tanto, se organizaría un nuevo concurso invitando a participar a tres compañías de aviones. Así, el Ki-18 acabó con un solo avión, para asombro de Mitsubishi, por el descontento expresado por el Cuartel General Aéreo, mientras que este mismo avión fue considerado un caza revolucionario de la Armada japonesa.

Fabricante: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd).
Tipo: Caza monomotor.
Tripulación (1): Piloto en cabina abierta.
Planta motriz: Un motor radial Nakajima Kotobuki 5 de 600 hp y nueve cilindros refrigerado por aire, que impulsa una hélice de madera de dos palas y paso fijo.
Armamento: Dos ametralladoras fijas Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm de disparo delantero.
Dimensiones: Luz de 11 m (36 pies 1 3/16 pulg.) De longitud 7,655 m (25 pies 1 1/4 pulg.) De altura 3,15 m (10 pies 4 pulg.) De área de ala 17,8 metros cuadrados (191.603 pies cuadrados).
Pesos: vacío 1,110 kg (2,447 lb) cargado 1,422 kg (3,135 lb) carga de ala 79,9 kg / m2 (16,3 lb / sq ft) carga de potencia 2,6 kg / hp (5,2 lb / hp).
Rendimiento: Velocidad máxima 444 kh / h (276 mph) a 3050 m (10,000 pies) velocidad de aterrizaje 112 km / h (70 mph) ascenso a 5,000 m (16,404 pies) en 6 min 26 seg.
Producción: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK construyó un solo prototipo Ki-18 en 1935.

La foto fue tomada desde Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, por Robert C Mikesh y Shorzoe Abe.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 02 de julio de 2003, 15:22

Reconociendo la experiencia que tanto Nakajima como Mitsubishi habían acumulado con el diseño de aviones bimotores, el Ejército contrató a ambas compañías en 1935 para desarrollar un bombardero pesado moderno para reemplazar al Mitsubishi Ki-1 Army Type 93 Heavy Bomber de 1933. Con esta orden vino un cambio por el cual los militares emitieron especificaciones precontractuales que debían cumplirse al crear nuevos diseños.

Entre los requisitos emitidos en febrero de 1936 estaban: velocidad máxima 399 km / h (248 mph) a 3.000 m (9.842 pies) ascenso a esa altitud en menos de 8 minutos despegue en menos de 300 m (984 pies) altitud operativa normal de 2.000 m (6.561 pies) a 4.000 m (13.123 pies) y una autonomía de más de cinco horas a 299 km / h (186 mph) a 3.000 m (9.842 pies). También se especificó la resistencia estructural, incluido un factor de carga de 6 en un ángulo de ataque alto y de 4 en un planeo. La carga mínima de bombas para misiones de corto alcance debía ser de 1.000 kg (2.205 libras) con una variedad de configuraciones de carga. Cargado, el bombardero debía tener un peso de menos de 6.400 kg (14.109 libras). Otros requisitos especificados eran una tripulación de cuatro a seis motores para ser Nakajima Ha-5 o Mitsubishi Ha-6 y tres posiciones de cañón (nariz, dorsal y ventral, cada una con una máquina flexible Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas). pistola). También se especificaron la radio Hi-2 (Tipo 94) o Hi-5, y otros detalles.

Los seleccionados legítimamente para el equipo de diseño fueron Ken-ichi Matsumura como diseñador jefe, asistido por Setsuro Nishimura y Toshio Matsuda, todos los cuales tenían experiencia previa en diseño de bimotores en el proyecto del avión comercial Nakajima-Douglas DC-2, y el de corta duración Proyecto de bombardero de ataque de largo alcance LB-2 para la Armada.

El Ki-19, dos prototipos de los cuales fueron construidos por Nakajima, era un monoplano en voladizo de ala media de construcción totalmente metálica con superficies de control cubiertas de tela. Incorporando las últimas innovaciones en diseño de bombarderos, este avión tenía una bahía de bombas dentro de un fuselaje muy aerodinámico en lugar de llevar las bombas externamente. Su ala en voladizo se montó en el nivel medio del fuselaje, y se utilizó un tren de aterrizaje retráctil de operación hidráulica tipo Douglas y flaps divididos.

Las pruebas de rendimiento realizadas por el Instituto de Investigación Técnica Aérea del Ejército con las entradas de la competencia Mitsubishi Ki-21 duraron de marzo a mayo de 1937 en Tachikawa. Desde allí, el proceso de evaluación se trasladó a la principal base de bombarderos del Ejército en Hamamatsu para realizar bombardeos y otras pruebas operativas que comenzaron en junio de ese año. Los evaluadores estudiaron de cerca los motores, así como el fuselaje y el rendimiento. No completamente satisfecho con las combinaciones de fuselaje y motores, aunque se habían seleccionado el fuselaje Mitsubishi Ki-21 y los motores Nakajima, el Ejército ordenó dos prototipos Ki-19 adicionales de Nakajima para ser propulsados ​​por el Mitsubishi Ha-6, y dos prototipos de el Mitsubishi Ki-21 será propulsado por motores Nakajima Ha-5.

Los prototipos de las dos compañías eran casi idénticos en rendimiento, pero el Ejército seleccionó oficialmente el Mitsubishi Ki-21 como el bombardero pesado Army Type 97 considerando que el Nakajima Ha-5 era el motor más confiable a pesar de su mala reputación de confiabilidad. Nakajima, que había cumplido con el contrato del Ejército, convirtió el cuarto prototipo, uno de los propulsados ​​por el Mitsubishi Ha-6, en un avión civil y en abril de 1939 le otorgó la nueva designación N-19. Comúnmente se le denominó Aeronave de Comunicaciones de Largo Alcance N-19 y se vendió al Dmei Tsushin-sha (Domei Press Co), registrado como J-BACN y nombrado Domei No.2.

Fabricante: Nakajima Hikoki KK (Nakajima Airplane Co Ltd).
Tipo: Bombardero pesado bimotor.
Tripulación (5): Piloto, copiloto, navegante / bombardero, radiooperador / artillero y artillero.
Planta motriz: Dos motores radiales Nakajima Ha-5 de catorce cilindros de doble hilera refrigerados por aire de 890 hp, que impulsan hélices metálicas de paso controlable Hamilton Standard.
Armamento: Tres ametralladoras flexibles Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) en las posiciones frontal, dorsal y ventral. Carga de bomba de 1.000 kg (2.205 lb) para misiones de corto alcance.
Dimensiones: Envergadura 22 m (72 pies 2 pulg) longitud 15 m (49 pies 2 1/2 pulg) altura 3,65 m (11 pies 11 3/4 pulg) área de ala 62,694 metros cuadrados (674,854 pies cuadrados).
Pesos: * Vacío 4,750 kg (10,472 lb) cargado 7,150 kg (15,763 lb) carga de ala 113,5 kg / m2 (23,3 lb / sq ft) carga de potencia 4,1 kg / hp (9,1 lb / hp).
Rendimiento: * Velocidad máxima 351,9 km / h (218,6 mph) velocidad de crucero 300 km / h (186,42 mph) rango 4.000 km (2.845 millas).
Producción: Nakajima Hikoki KK construyó un total de cuatro prototipos entre 1937-1938.

* Nota: Los pesos y el rendimiento son para N-19 con motores Ha-6.

La foto fue tomada desde Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941, por Robert C Mikesh y Shorzoe Abe.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 02 de julio de 2003, 16:24

Para cumplir con una orden del Ejército de fabricar una versión bombardero del, entonces, muy grande avión de pasajeros Junkers G.38, Mitsubishi firmó un contrato con Junkers en septiembre de 1928 para obtener datos de diseño, dibujos de trabajo, técnicas de fabricación y derechos de producción. Alemania en ese momento tenía prohibido construir aviones militares, pero, como el K.51, el G.38 podría convertirse en un bombardero para la exportación. Se podrían diseñar características en la aeronave básica para el comprador, como armamento y sistemas internos para cumplir con los requisitos del ejército japonés. En consecuencia, el diseño de Junkers K.51 se convirtió en Japón en el Ki-20, una designación retroactiva que se hizo mucho después de su existencia. El propósito pretendido, pero muy secreto, era que el atacante fuera capaz de atacar la isla fortificada de Corregidor en la entrada a la bahía de Manila desde el aeródromo japonés de Pintung en Formosa (Taiwán), necesidad que no se materializó hasta trece años después. . Esta tecnología de Junkers introdujo a Mitsubishi en métodos de fabricación y diseño completamente nuevos.

Nobushiro Nakara, que pronto será el diseñador jefe de este proyecto, y Kyonosuke Ohki fueron enviados por Mitsubishi a Alemania en 1928 para estudiar el diseño y prepararse para su fabricación en Japón. En diciembre de ese año, el ingeniero Yonezo Mitsunawa y el mecánico jefe Tsunetaro Ishihama fueron a Junkers para estudiar técnicas de fabricación, mientras que el ingeniero Keisuke Ohtsuka compró las máquinas, herramientas, plantillas y materiales necesarios en Alemania en abril de 1930. Desde Alemania llegó un equipo de ingenieros dirigido por Eugene Harbard Schade para ayudar con la fabricación. Representantes del ejército japonés, incluido el coronel Kozumi como jefe, con los ingenieros Kuranishi, Ando, ​​el teniente Matsumura y otros para ayudar.

El Ki-20 era un gran monoplano de cuatro motores de ala media con un tren de aterrizaje no retráctil con ruedas en tándem y una cola biplano con aletas triples. La construcción fue de estructura de piel estresada corrugada totalmente metálica. Cuando comenzó la producción, el primer y el segundo avión se construyeron con componentes importados de Alemania, el tercero incluía solo una proporción de componentes importados, pero el resto de los aviones eran de fabricación totalmente japonesa.

El armamento defensivo del Ki-20, formidable para el período, comprendía un total de ocho ametralladoras de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) y un cañón de 20 mm (0,79 pulgadas). La disposición de esta formidable disposición era la siguiente: dos ametralladoras de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) en la cabina de un artillero de proa abierta, un cañón de 20 mm montado dorsal en la parte superior del fuselaje, dos torretas debajo de las alas cada una con una ametralladora única de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) y dos torretas de ala superior, cada una con dos ametralladoras de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas), que se fusionan con las porciones traseras de las dos góndolas de los motores fuera de borda. Las bombas se llevaron debajo del fuselaje en bastidores externos. La carga estándar de la bomba era de 2.000 kg (4.409 libras) con un máximo declarado de 5.000 kg (11.023 libras).

El primer avión se completó en 1931 y voló desde Kagamigahara en condiciones de extremo secreto que prevalecieron durante casi toda la vida útil del avión. Los primeros cuatro aviones estaban propulsados ​​por cuatro motores de gasolina Junkers L-88 de 800 CV, y los dos últimos por motores diesel Junkers Jumo 204 de 720 CV. Los arreglos de energía variaron de vez en cuando, como la instalación de dos Junkers L-88 en el interior y dos Junkers Jumo 204 en el exterior. Más tarde, se instalaron Kawasaki Ha-9 para realizar pruebas con el fin de desarrollar aún más el avión para misiones de bombarderos de largo alcance. Pero para cuando concluyeron estas pruebas, el Ejército se dio cuenta de que el rendimiento de estos aviones pesados, lentos y desgarbados con sus problemas crónicos de motor, estaba muy por debajo de las expectativas de un bombardero estratégico de largo alcance capaz de atacar objetivos tan lejanos como Filipinas. .

Eran aviones enormes para su época, con un ala enorme en forma de murciélago que se extendía casi un metro más que el Boeing B-29 Superfortress. En términos de área de ala (que era casi el doble que la del B-29), el Ki-20 fue el avión más grande jamás construido en Japón. Era uno de los aviones terrestres más grandes en ese momento y, debido a esto, causó problemas considerables, especialmente si se asignaba a unidades operativas en áreas avanzadas no preparadas. Aunque el avión voló tanto en Japón como en Manchuria, nunca se utilizaron en combate, sino que se utilizaron con fines de investigación y propaganda nacional. Su primera demostración pública no fue hasta enero de 1940, cuando tres aparecieron durante un vuelo en formación sobre Tokio, después de haber despegado del aeródromo de Tachikawa. Cuando se retiraron de servicio poco después, se exhibieron en varias exhibiciones de defensa y parques de diversiones. El último se almacenó en el Aviation Memorial Hall en Tokorozawa, donde sobrevivió con otros tipos raros hasta el final de la Guerra del Pacífico.

Fabricante: Mitsubishi Kokuki KK (Mitsubishi Aircraft Co Ltd).
Tipo: Bombardero pesado cuatrimotor de largo alcance.
Tripulación (10): Capitán, dos pilotos, bombardero / artillero de nariz, ingeniero de vuelo / artillero superior, operador de radio / artillero superior y cuatro artilleros de ala.
Planta motriz: Cuatro motores Junkers L-88 de doce cilindros en V de 800 hp refrigerados por líquido, o cuatro motores diésel de refrigeración líquida verticalmente opuestos de doce cilindros tipo Ju (Ju 204) de 750 hp, que impulsan hélices de madera de cuatro palas.
Armamento: ver texto.
Dimensiones: Luz 44 m (144 pies 4 1/4 pulg.) Longitud 23,20 m (76 pies 1 1/2 pulg.) Altura 7 m (22 pies 11 3/4 pulg.) Área de ala 294 metros cuadrados (3164,693 pies cuadrados).
Pesos: Vacío 14,912 kg (32,875 lb) cargado 25,448 kg (56,103 lb) carga de ala 86,6 kg / m2 (17,7 lb / sq ft) carga de potencia 7,96 kg / hp (17,5 lb / hp).
Rendimiento: Velocidad máxima 200 km / h (124 mph).
Producción: Mitsubishi Kokuki KK construyó un total de seis Ki-20 de la siguiente manera: No 1 de abril de 1931 a marzo de 1932, No 2 y 3 de abril de 1932 a marzo de 1933, No 4 de abril de 1933 a marzo de 1934 y No 5 y del 6 de abril de 1934 a marzo de 1935.

Las fotos fueron tomadas desde Japanese Aircraft de 1910 a 1941, por Robert C Mikesh y Shorzoe Abe.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 05 de julio de 2003, 11:50

El Ki-21 fue diseñado por Mitsubishi en respuesta a una especificación que solicitaba un bombardero pesado bimotor para reemplazar al Army Type 92 Heavy Bomber (Mitsubishi Ki-20) y al Army Type 93 Heavy Bomber (Mitsubishi Ki-1) que tenía emitido el 15 de febrero de 1936 por el Koku Hombu. Los requisitos incluían: (1) altitud de funcionamiento, 2.000 a 4.000 m (6.560 a 13.125 pies) (2) resistencia, durante cinco horas a 300 km / h (186 mph) (3) velocidad máxima, 400 km / h (248,5 mph) a 3.000 m (9.845 pies) (4) subir a 3.000 m (9.845 pies) en 8 min (5) de recorrido de despegue, menos de 300 m (985 pies) y (6) motores, dos Nakajima Ha-5 de 850 hp o dos radiales Mitsubishi Ha-6 de 825 hp. Se requería que la aeronave fuera operada por una tripulación normal de cuatro, con dos asientos adicionales disponibles para artilleros adicionales según fuera necesario. El armamento defensivo consistiría en no menos de tres ametralladoras flexibles en las posiciones frontal, dorsal y ventral, y con la carga de combustible completa, la carga de la bomba sería igual a 750 kg (1653 lb) mientras que la carga máxima de la bomba para las misiones de corto alcance era ser de 1.000 kg (2.205 libras).

Acreditado a un equipo dirigido por los ingenieros Nakata y Ozawa, los dos prototipos Ki-21 se completaron en la 5ta fábrica de fuselajes de Mitsubishi en Nagoya en diciembre de 1936. Impulsados ​​por dos radiales Mitsubishi Ha-6 de 825 hp que impulsan hélices de paso variable, los dos aviones fueron monoplanos en voladizo totalmente metálicos con alas colocadas en el centro del fuselaje sobre la bahía de bombas ventral y se caracterizaban por una nariz acristalada angular que albergaba la posición del apuntador de la bomba y una ametralladora Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) móvil solo en la vertical eje. El segundo prototipo Ki-21 se diferenciaba del primero en el diseño de su torreta dorsal, un invernadero largo que reemplazaba a la torreta semiesférica que generaba un arrastre excesivo. En el escalón ventral se montó una tercera ametralladora flexible Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) que disparaba hacia la parte trasera. A partir del 18 de diciembre de 1936, cuando el primer Ki-21 realizó su vuelo inaugural, los dos aviones se utilizaron en el programa de prueba de vuelo del fabricante hasta marzo de 1937, cuando ambos aviones se enfrentaron a los dos primeros Nakajima Ki-19 con motor Ha-5. Un tercer diseño competitivo, el Kawasaki Ki-22, había sido presentado en respuesta a la especificación del 15 de febrero de 1936, pero no había sido aprobado para la construcción de prototipos. La evaluación competitiva del Ki-21 y Ki-19 culminó en junio de 1937 con los ensayos de bombardeo celebrados en Hamamatsu. Al Ki-21 se le atribuyó un rendimiento superior y una carga de ala más ligera, pero el Ki-19 tenía motores más confiables, mejores características de vuelo y ofrecía una plataforma de bombardeo más adecuada. En consecuencia, el Koku Hombu ordenó prototipos adicionales de ambos tipos y Mitsubishi recibió instrucciones de usar los motores Nakajima Ha-5 de 850 hp, con una potencia de 950 hp para el despegue y 1,080 hp a 4,000 m (13,125 pies), y para mejorar el rendimiento. características de vuelo de su Ki-21.

Las fotos fueron tomadas desde Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, por Rene J Francillon.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 05 de julio de 2003, 11:51

El tercer Ki-21, el primero en ser impulsado por un par de Nakajima Ha-5 de 850 hp, presentaba una nariz hemisférica que alojaba una ametralladora Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) en un montaje de rótula y tenía un Fuselaje trasero rediseñado sin escalón ventral. La estabilidad direccional, particularmente importante durante la carrera de bombardeo, se mejoró con la instalación de superficies de cola verticales rediseñadas. Cuando se llevó a cabo una nueva serie de pruebas competitivas contra el Ki-19 en Tachikawa, el Ki-21 así modificado ganó fácilmente una orden de producción, y los últimos cinco prototipos del Ki-21 se convirtieron en aviones de prueba de servicio y se utilizaron para probar equipos operativos. . El modelo de producción inicial, el Ki-21-Ia, encargado en 1937 como el Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model IA era externamente idéntico a los prototipos propulsados ​​por Ha-5, pero presentaba un aumento en la capacidad del tanque de combustible de 1.840 litros (405 Imp gal) a 2.635 litros (580 Imp gal). A partir de la primavera de 1938, Mitsubishi construyó 143 aviones de este tipo (Ki-21 c / ns 9 a 151). También se había otorgado un pedido de producción para el Ki-21 a Nakajima Hikoki KK que, entre agosto de 1938 y febrero de 1941, construyó un total de 315 aviones Ki-21-Ia, Ki-21-Ib y Ki-21-Ic. Estas dos últimas versiones del Ki-21 fueron desarrolladas por Mitsubishi para superar la debilidad del armamento defensivo de la aeronave y la falta de protección del tanque de combustible que se había vuelto dolorosamente evidente cuando los Sentais 60 y 61 fueron enviados a China con su Ki-21-. Fue en el verano de 1938.

El Ki-21-Ib retuvo las mismas tres ametralladoras flexibles Tipo 89 en la nariz, las posiciones dorsal y ventral, y también estaba armado con una ametralladora similar que disparaba a través de aberturas laterales a ambos lados del fuselaje trasero. Una quinta ametralladora Tipo 89 de 7,7 mm (0,303 pulgadas) se montó como un 'aguijón' en la cola extrema de la aeronave, esta instalación de arma controlada a distancia se había probado previamente en el quinto prototipo. Los 120 construidos por Mitsubishi (Ki-21 c / ns 152 a 271) Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model IB, como el Ki-21-Ibs construido por Nakajima, tenían sus tanques de combustible parcialmente protegidos por láminas de caucho laminado. Otras modificaciones incorporadas en el Ki-21-Ib incluyeron una bahía de bombas ampliada, flaps de aterrizaje más grandes y nuevas superficies de cola horizontales con un área total aumentada de 10,82 metros cuadrados (116,465 pies cuadrados) a 11,32 metros cuadrados (121,847 pies cuadrados). El Ki-21-Ic, del cual Mitsubishi fabricó 160 (Ki-21 c / ns 272 a 431), recibió una ametralladora lateral adicional y un tanque de combustible auxiliar con una capacidad de 500 litros (110 Imp gal) podría ser instalado en el bpmb-bay trasero. Cuando se instaló este tanque, cuatro bombas de 50 kg (110 lb) se llevaron al exterior. Desde que se diseñó el Ki-21, su peso había aumentado constantemente y hubo que instalar ruedas principales más grandes en el Ki-21-Ic. En servicio, los Ki-21-Ib e -Ic reemplazaron a la versión anterior en las unidades de primera línea que operaban en el norte de China y Manchuria, y los Ki-21-Ias fueron asignados a unidades de entrenamiento y bombarderos sentais retenidos en Japón.

Las fotos fueron tomadas desde Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, por Rene J Francillon.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 07 de julio de 2003, 15:07

Al librar una guerra en China, el ejército japonés se encontró críticamente corto de aviones de transporte y, a la espera de la entrega del Ki-57, se decidió modificar algunos de los Ki-21-Ias sacados de las unidades de bombarderos de primera línea como transporte de carga. para el servicio con Dai Nippon Koku KK (Greater Japan Air Lines Co Ltd) en sus rutas de contrato militar entre Japón, Manchuria y China. Designado MC-21, estos aviones tenían todo el armamento y el equipo militar eliminado pero, al menos inicialmente, conservaban la nariz acristalada y el invernadero dorsal del bombardero. Aunque se utiliza principalmente como carguero, el MC-21 podría equiparse, si fuera necesario, con nueve asientos para tropas en una cabina primitiva. A partir de febrero de 1940 con J-BFOA Hiei, se entregó una pequeña cantidad de MC-21 a Dai Nippon Koku KK. Más tarde, estos aviones se modificaron aún más reemplazando la nariz acristalada con un carenado de metal. Otros Ki-21-Is se modificaron de manera similar en el campo para servir como aviones de comunicación y piratear con varios comandos del Ejército.

Las fotos fueron tomadas desde Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, por Rene J Francillon.

Post por Robert Hurst & raquo 07 de julio de 2003, 15:36

A la luz de la insignificante oposición de la Fuerza Aérea China, el Ki-21-Ib y el -Ic fueron bastante efectivos pero, preparándose para un conflicto mayor, en noviembre de 1939 el ejército japonés ordenó a Mitsubishi que aumentara la velocidad y el techo del avión. El primer Ki-21-Ic (Ki-21-I c / n 272) fue elegido como avión de desarrollo para la versión avanzada del Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber, y estaba propulsado por dos Mitsubishi Ha-101 de 1450 hp de aire de catorce cilindros. -radiales refrigerados, con una potencia nominal de 1.500 hp en el despegue y 1.340 hp a 4.600 m (15.090 pies). Fue necesario un rediseño completo de las góndolas del motor para albergar el Ha-101, que tenía hélices de mayor diámetro que el Ha-5, y encerrar completamente el tren de aterrizaje. El armamento, la disposición del tanque de combustible y otros sistemas se mantuvieron sin cambios, pero el área de las superficies horizontales de la cola se incrementó aún más de 11,32 metros cuadrados (121,847 pies cuadrados) a 13,16 metros cuadrados (141,653 pies cuadrados). Las pruebas de vuelo del avión modificado, el Ki-21-II, comenzaron en marzo de 1940 y dieron lugar a una orden de producción como el Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 2A (Ki-21-IIa). Comenzando en diciembre de 1940 con la entrega de cuatro máquinas de prueba de servicio, el Ki-21-IIa complementó las versiones anteriores en unidades de primera línea y al comienzo de la Guerra del Pacífico, la mayoría de los jubaku sentais (grupos de bombarderos pesados) del Ejército se habían convertido a esta variante. .

Cuando comenzó la guerra contra los aliados, a las unidades aéreas del ejército japonés se les asignó la tarea principal de apoyar la invasión de Tailandia, Birmania (Myanmar) y Malaya (Malasia) mientras mantenían una presión constante contra los chinos. En el primer día de la guerra, la 3ra Hikoshidan (División Aérea) que operaba desde bases en la Indochina Francesa (Vietnam, Camboya y Laos) tenía tres Jubaku Sentais con 87 de los Bombarderos Pesados ​​Tipo 97 del Ejército en fuerza y ​​algunos de estos aviones fueron desplegado por primera vez en apoyo de los desembarcos en Kota Bharu. Durante los siguientes siete meses, los Ki-21-II apoyaron las operaciones terrestres del Ejército en el sudeste asiático y las Indias Orientales Neerlandesas (Indonesia), y desempeñaron un papel importante en la caída de Hong Kong y Rangún. Inicialmente enfrentándose a aviones aliados obsoletos, los Ki-21-II demostraron ser bastante exitosos pero, cuando se enfrentaron a los RAF Hurricanes y P-40 del American Voluteer Group sobre Birmania y China, las pérdidas aumentaron drásticamente.

Para remediar la debilidad crónica del armamento defensivo, se eliminó el largo invernadero dorsal, que ofrecía solo un campo de fuego limitado a la ametralladora dorsal, a partir del Ki-21 c / n 1026. Para reemplazar esta máquina de mano- cañón Mitsubishi diseñó una gran torreta cónica que albergaba una ametralladora Tipo I de 12,7 mm (0,5 pulgadas). Con la instalación de esta torreta, operada por pedales de bicicleta con transmisión por cadena para el movimiento del cañón, el avión fue redesignado Army Type 97 Heavy Bomber Model 2B o Ki-21-IIb, y los aviones de producción tardía de esta variante se caracterizaron por el reemplazo de el anillo colector de escape con chimeneas de escape individuales que ofrecen cierto aumento de empuje. Mitsubishi entregó 688 Ki-21-IIbs, lo que eleva la producción total de todos los Ki-21, incluidos los prototipos y los aviones construidos por Nakajima a 2.064.

Durante los primeros años de la guerra, el Ki-21 fue uno de los aviones japoneses más conocidos y recibió uno de los nombres en clave originales: 'Jane' en honor a la esposa del general MacArthur. Como el famoso general no apreció esta forma de cumplido, el nombre en clave se cambió rápidamente a "Sally". Más tarde, la ausencia del invernadero dorsal largo, una de las principales características de reconocimiento de 'Sally', llevó a la inteligencia aliada a identificar al Ki-21-IIb como un nuevo tipo de bombardero japonés que, en consecuencia, recibió el nombre en clave 'Gwen'. Cuando la aeronave se identificó correctamente como simplemente una versión del Ki-21, se renombró como 'Sally 3', 'Sally 1' se refiere a los modelos con motor Ha-5 y 'Sally 2' al Ki-21 con motor Ha-101. -IIa. Ya sea conocido como 'Gwen' o 'Sally 3', el Ki-21-IIb fue recibido por fuerzas aliadas desde Nueva Guinea hasta India y China. En 1943, los jubaku sentais equipados con Ki-21-II superaban en número dos a uno a las unidades equipadas con Ki-49 y el Bombardero Pesado Tipo 97 del Ejército llevó la peor parte de las acciones aéreas ofensivas japonesas contra Calcuta. Otros Ki-21-II Sentais lucharon valientemente para frenar el avance aliado desde Nueva Guinea a Filipinas pero, con su escolta de cazas superada en número y cazada en tierra por barridos de cazas aliados, sus pérdidas fueron muy elevadas. Fortunately for the Army, at long last a replacement for the Ki-21 was becoming available and the Army Type 97 Heavy Bombers began to be phased-out of operations during the last year of the war. At the time of the Japanese surrender only the 58th Sentai still operated the Ki-21 in its original role and most remaining aircraft were being used as communication or headquarters aircraft or for special missions. One such mission was the commando attack on Yontan airfield, Okinawa, on which one out of nine Ki-21-IIbs despatched by the 3rd Dokuritsu Hikotai (Independent Wing) managed to crash-land near parked US aircraft and suppy dumps, considerable damage being inflicted by the fanatical commandos.

The Mitsubishi Ki-21 had contributed more than any other aircraft to bringing the air branch of the Army to parity of equipment with other air forces. However, the inability of the Japanese aircraft industry to provide in time an adequate successor to the Ki-21 forced the use of the aircraft beyond its planned operational career. During the latter part of the war, despite its obsolescence, the Ki-21 was still liked by its crews for its pleasant handling characteristics and ease of maintenance and was preferred to the more modern Nakajima Ki-49.

Photos were taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Rener J Francillon.

Post por Robert Hurst » 08 Jul 2003, 12:19

7th, 12th, 14th, 58th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 92nd, 94th, 95th and 98th Sentais. 3rd Dokuritsu Hikotai. 22nd Hikodan. 1st, 5th and 8th Hikoshidan Shireibu Hikodan. Hamamatsu Army Bomber Flying School.

Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engine heavy bomber.
Crew (5+2): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, radio-operator/gunner and gunner. Two additional gunners could be carried when required.
Powerplant: (1st & 2nd Ki-21 prototypes) Two 825 hp Mitsubishi Ha-6 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radials, driving three-blade variable-pitch metal propellers (3rd-8th Ki-21 prototypes, Ki-21-I and MC-21) Two 850 hp Army Type 97 (Nakajima Ha-5 KAI) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radials, driving three-blade variable-pitch metal propellers (Ki-21-II) Two 1,450 hp Army Type 100 (Mitsubisji Ha-101) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radials, driving thre-blade constant speed metal propellers.
Armament: (Prototypes and Ki-21-Ia) One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun in each of nose, ventral and dorsal positions (Ki-21-Ib) One flexible 7.7 mm Type 89 machine-gun in each of nose, ventral and dorsal positions. One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun in a tail stinger and one flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-gun firing from either side of the fuselage (Ki-21-Ic and Ki-21-IIa) One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-guns in each of nose, ventral, dorsal, tail and port and starboard beam positions (Ki-21-IIb) One flexible 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 89 machine-guns in each of nose, ventral, tail and port and starboard beam positions and one 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 machine-gun in dorsal turret. Bomb-load - normal 750 kg (1,653 lb) maximum 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).
Dimensions: (Ki-21-Ia) Span 22.5 m (73 ft 9 13/16 in) length 16 m (52 ft 5 29/32 in) height 4.35 m (14 ft 3 13/32 in) wing area 69.6 sq m (749.165 sq ft). (Ki-21-IIb) Span 22.5 m (73 ft 9 13/16 in) length 16 m (52 ft 5 29/32 in) height 4.85 m (15 ft 10 15/16 in) wing area 69.6 sq m (749.165 sq ft).
Weights: (Ki-21-Ia) Empty 4,691 kg (10,342 lb) loaded 7,492 kg (16,517 lb) maximum 7,916 kg (17,452 lb) wing loading 107.6 kg/sq m (22 lb/sq ft) power loading3.9 kg/hp (8.7 lb/hp). (Ki-21-IIb) Empty 6,070 kg (13,382 lb) loaded 9,710 kg (21,407 lb) maximum 10,610 kg (23,391 lb) wing loading 139.5 kg/sq m (28.6 lb/sq ft) power loading 3.2 kg/hp (7.1 lb/hp).
Performance: (Ki-21-Ia) Maximum speed 432 km/h (268 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft) climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in 13 min 55 sec service ceiling 8,600 m (28,215 ft) range - normal 1,500 km (932 miles) maximum 2,700 km (1,680 miles). (Ki-21-IIb) Maximum speed 486 km/h (302 mph) at 4,720 m (15,485 ft) cruising speed 380 km/h (236 mph) at 5,000 m (16,405 ft) climb to 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in 13 min 13 sec service ceiling 10,000 m (32,810 ft) range - maximum 2,700 km (1,680 miles).
Production: A total of 2,064 Ki-21s were built by Mitsubishi Jukogyo KK at Nagoya and Nakajima Hikoki KK at Ota as follows:

8 prototypes and Service trials aircraft - November 1936-March 1938
143 Ki-21-Ia production aircraft - March 1938-1939
120 Ki-21-Ib production aircraft - 1939-1940
160 Ki-21-Ic production aircraft - 1940
4 Ki-21-II Service trials aircraft - December 1940
590 Ki-21-IIa production aircraft - December 1940-1942
688 Ki-21-IIb production aircraft - 1942-September 1944

351 Ki-21-Ia,-Ib and -Ic production aircraft - August 1938-February 1941

An unknown number of Ki-21-Is were modified as transport aircraft under the designation MC-21.

The photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post por Robert Hurst » 08 Jul 2003, 16:50

In 1934, the Army had issued a specification calling for a replacement type for the Army Type 92 (Kawasaki KDA-5) Fighter, then standard equipment for the fighter units. In answer to this specification Kawasaki submitted the Ki-10, a refinement of their older biplane, and Nakajima entered the Ki-11, wire-braced low-wing monoplane inspired by the Boeing P-26. Although powered by a Nakajima Ha-8 with a maximum rating of only 640 hp versus the 800 hp rating of the Kawasaki Ha-9-II of the Ki-10, the Ki-11 was considerably faster. However, the Service pilots were not yet ready for such novelties as low-wing monoplanes and enclosed cockpits, and the Ki-10, more manouevrable and faster climbing than the Ki-11, was selected for production as the Army Type 95 Fighter and became the JAAF's last combat biplane.

Nakajima, despite their failure to obtain a production contract for the Ki-11, had acquired enough test data with this aircraft and the Ki-12, an experimental low-wing monoplane powered by a liquid-cooled Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs with hub-mounted cannon, to be satisfied with the potential of the monoplane fighter configuration and to embark on their own on the design of a more advanced machine, the Type PE. The PE design was still in its early phase when, in June 1935, the Koku Hombu instructed Mitsubishi, Kawasaki and Nakajima each to build two prototypes of advanced fighter aircraft.

Nakajima's wisdom in pursuing the development of the monoplane fighter was vindicated when Kawasaki submitted their Ki-28 low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by an 800 hp Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa liquid-cooled engine, while Mitsubishi submitted the Ki-33, a version of their A5M monoplane then being manufactured for the JNAF as the Navy Type 96 Carrier Fighter. In the meantime, Nakajima had decided as a private venture to carry on with the design of the Type PE and to enter in the forthcoming competition a development of this machine which received the military designation Ki-27.

The single Type PE produced was completed in July 1936 and was followed in October 1936 by the first prototype Ki-27. Both machines, designed by T Koyama, were low-wing cantilever monoplanes each powered by a 650 hp Nakajima Ha-1a radial, rated at 710 hp for take-off and 650 hp at 2,000 m (6,560 ft), and fitted with fixed spatted undercarriages they differed in minor details affecting the design of the cowling, canopy, vertical tail surfaces and wheel spats. The Type PE was retained by Nakajima and provided useful information which was incorporated in the prototype Ki-27 during its construction.

Before its retirement, the Type PE was also used to flight test the 'butterfly' combat flaps which Nakajima used with considerable success to improve the manoeuvrability of their wartime fighters. In designing the Type PE and the Ki-27, T Koyama had selected an extremely light structure and made use of a new aerofoil section developed by Nakajima which gave the aircraft its remarkable manoeuvrability.

The top photo was taken from The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green & Gordon Swanborough, the centre photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon, and the bottom photo was taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Fighters Vol 3, by William Green.


Mission history

The Ki-45 was initially used as a long-range escort fighter. In June 1942 attacks on Guilin were flown with Ki-45s , where they encountered the superior P-40s of the Flying Tigers . In September of the same year they also met P-40 via Hanoi , with a similar result. This made it clear that the Ki-45 could not hold its own against single-engine fighters in aerial combat.

Then it was used in various places as an interceptor, attack aircraft against ground and ship targets and for naval defense. Its suitability as an interceptor against bombers turned out to be its greatest strength . In New Guinea , the Air Force of the Imperial Japanese Army used the Ki-45, heavily armed with one 37 mm and two 20 mm cannons and two 250 kg bombs under the wings, to combat ships. In total, 1701 Ki-45s of all versions were built during the war.

The first version ( Ko ), which went into production, was equipped with two 12.7 mm machine guns in the bow , a 20 mm cannon under the fuselage and a movable 7.92 mm machine gun in the rear cockpit . It was followed by the Otsu , in which the 20-mm guns were exchanged for a 37-mm anti-tank gun for combating B-17 bombers. The enormous firepower that resulted was bought at the cost of the manual reloading required for this cannon with a low rate of fire of only two rounds per minute. The next version ( Hei ) therefore received the 20 mm cannon under the fuselage as well as a 37 mm cannon in the bow that was now automatically reloading. Later, instead of the 20 mm cannon under the fuselage, a two-barrel 20 mm cannon was installed behind the cockpit.

Soon after commissioning, the Ki-45 was assigned to Home Defense, and some were assigned but not deployed for use against the Doolittle Raid . The heavy armament proved effective against the attacks with the B-29 Superfortress that began in June 1944 However, the Ki-45s were barely able to reach the B-29, which were flying at an altitude of around 10,000 m. Modifications, such as reducing the fuel supply or reducing armament, were of little use. Finally one went over to ramming operations. In 1945 some successes against nocturnal bombers could be achieved with the forward and upward pointing weapons, but the lack of radars made things very difficult. The career of the Ki-45 ended in the spring of 1945 with the appearance of the American carrier aircraft and the P-51 stationed on Iwo Jima , which escorted the B-29 over Japan.

The machines of the next version, the Kawasaki Ki-45 KAIc, were specially developed for night fighters , in which a radar should be installed in the bow tip. However, problems in production prevented this. Four "Sentai" were still equipped with this version in order to defend the Japanese home islands in night operations from autumn 1944 until the end of the war. They achieved good results. With a Sentai, eight B-29s were shot down on its first mission and 150 more aerial victories were achieved.


Kawasaki disease: A brief history

Tomisaku Kawasaki published the first English-language report of 50 patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) in 1974. Since that time, KD has become the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in North America and Japan. Although an infectious agent is suspected, the cause remains unknown. However, significant progress has been made toward understanding the natural history of the disease and therapeutic interventions have been developed that halt the immune-mediated destruction of the arterial wall. We present a brief history of KD, review progress in research on the disease, and suggest avenues for future study. Kawasaki saw his first case of KD in January 1961 and published his first report in Japanese in 1967. Whether cases existed in Japan before that time is currently under study. The most significant controversy in the 1960s in Japan was whether the rash and fever sign/symptom complex described by Kawasaki was connected to subsequent cardiac complications in a number of cases. Pathologist Noboru Tanaka and pediatrician Takajiro Yamamoto disputed the early assertion of Kawasaki that KD was a self-limited illness with no sequelae. This controversy was resolved in 1970 when the first Japanese nationwide survey of KD documented 10 autopsy cases of sudden cardiac death after KD. By the time of the first English-language publication by Kawasaki in 1974, the link between KD and coronary artery vasculitis was well-established. KD was independently recognized as a new and distinct condition in the early 1970s by pediatricians Marian Melish and Raquel Hicks at the University of Hawaii. In 1973, at the same Hawaiian hospital, pathologist Eunice Larson, in consultation with Benjamin Landing at Los Angeles Children's Hospital, retrospectively diagnosed a 1971 autopsy case as KD. The similarity between KD and infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN) was apparent to these pathologists, as it had been to Tanaka earlier. What remains unknown is the reason for the simultaneous recognition of this disease around the world in the 1960s and 1970s. There are several possible explanations. KD may have been a new disease that emerged in Japan and emanated to the Western World through Hawaii, where the disease is prevalent among Asian children. Alternatively, KD and IPN may be part of the spectrum of the same disease and clinically mild KD masqueraded as other diseases, such as scarlet fever in the preantibiotic era. Case reports of IPN from Western Europe extend back to at least the 19th century, but, thus far, cases of IPN have not been discovered in Japan before World War II. Perhaps the factors responsible for KD were introduced into Japan after the World War II and then reemerged in a more virulent form that subsequently spread through the industrialized Western world. It is also possible that improvements in health care and, in particular, the use of antibiotics to treat infections caused by organisms including toxin-producing bacteria reduced the burden of rash/fever illness and allowed KD to be recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Itsuzo Shigematsu, Hiroshi Yanagawa, and colleagues have conducted 14 nationwide surveys in Japan. These have indicated that: 1) KD occurred initially in nationwide epidemics but now occurs in regional outbreaks 2) there are approximately 5,000 to 6,000 new cases each year 3) current estimates of incidence rates are 120 to 150 cases per 100,000 children <5 years old 4) KD is 1.5 times more common in males and 85% of cases occur in children <5 years old and 5) the recurrence rate is low (4%). In 1978, David Morens at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a case definition based on Kawasaki's original criteria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a computerized database in 1984, and a passive reporting system currently exists in 22 states. Regional investigations and national surveys suggest an annual incidence of 4 to 15 cases per 100 000 children <5 years o


1990-2001 Ninja ZX-11

If you're my age (a young looking 40-something, but I can play a world weary 30-something) this is the bike that sticks in your mind. Kawasaki built one of the all-around fastest, easiest to ride, predictable, and comfortable road burners in 1990 with the introduction of the ZX-11, and kept making it with minor improvements for more than ten years.

You may think they were lazy, or resting on their laurels, or decided 175mph was as fast as anyone needed to go, but you can’t argue with the fact that for six of those years, there was nothing faster on two wheels. Stock ZX-11s could run the 1/4 mile in 10 seconds and change at over 130mph with a skilled rider.

One of the great things about the ZX-11 is that it is all day comfortable, and can cruise at arrestable speeds with a two-up and with soft luggage until you run out of gas. The motor’s 145hp is as much as anyone will likely ever need, and it comes with a wide powerband and loads of torque. Excellent condition early bikes go for just $3,000 and good ones for $1,700. The 1993 and later bikes were slightly improved, and excellent condition ones go for $4,500 though oddly enough, good ones sell for just $1,300.


THE KAWASAKI NAME

represents a technological enterprise whose activities range from large-scale, international projects to items used in daily life and for recreation. And at every step, Kawasaki pays the utmost attention to humankind and the environment. The past 120 years of innovation has enabled Kawasaki to establish a firm foundation as a leading technological enterprise. Now, the company is fully prepared to welcome the new century and looks forward to playing a leading role in the advancement of humankind and to another century of innovation.


Company-Histories.com

Public Company
Incorporated: 1896 as Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd.
Employees: 29,651
Sales: $10.3 billion (2003)
Stock Exchanges: Tokyo Osaka Nagoya
Ticker Symbol: KWHIY
NAIC: 336412 Aircraft Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing 333611 Gas Turbines (Except Aircraft) Manufacturing 541330 Industrial Engineering Services 336611 Ship Building and Repairing 336510 Railroad Rolling Stock Manufacturing 336991 Motorcycles and Parts Manufacturing 336312 Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing 332312 Fabricated Structural Metal Manufacturing 331111 Iron and Steel Mills 234930 Industrial Nonbuilding Structure Construction


Perspectivas de la empresa:
The corporate philosophy of the KHI Group is to draw on its broad base of advanced technologies to create new value in product offerings that work modern-day wonders on land, at sea, and in the air and contribute to economic and social development around the world. To attain the goals of its corporate philosophy, the fundamental management policy of the KHI Group is to work to increase customer satisfaction by providing superior products and services--differentiated by technology and the strength of the Kawasaki brand--that increase its enterprise value and respond to the expectations of its shareholders, customers, and employees and the communities it serves.


Key Dates:
1878: Shozo Kawasaki opens Kawasaki Tsukiji Shipyard in Tokyo to build Western-type oceangoing steel.
1886: Kawasaki moves operations to Hyogo and incorporates the company as Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd. Kojiro Matsukata is appointed as the first president of the new company.
1896: Company goes public as Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd.
1906: Kawasaki opens a new factory, Hyogo Works, to produce a variety of rolling stock--railroad cars, locomotives, and related parts.
1950: The company spins off its steel division as part of a broad restructuring.
1969: Kawasaki Aircraft Heavy Industries is created by the reintegration of Kawasaki Aircraft and Kawasaki Rolling Stock with the original parent, Kawasaki Dockyard.
1975: Kawasaki becomes the first Japanese motor vehicle producer to produce motorcycles in the United States.
2002: Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation and Kawasaki Precision Machinery Ltd. are established as wholly owned subsidiaries.

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. was one of a handful of firms that helped propel Japan into the modern industrial world, playing a major role in the automobile, aircraft, power plant, and heavy-machinery industries as well as in shipbuilding. It was one of the world's leading shipbuilders for much of the 20th century, although in the latter half of the century it developed an equally strong reputation for its motorcycles and lawnmower engines. Long a diversified company, Kawasaki has survived numerous challenges to its shipbuilding business over the course of its history, from the drastic and apparently permanent slump that overtook the shipbuilding industry after the 1973 oil embargo, to the emergence of intense competition from South Korean shipbuilders. The company has managed to stay afloat amid these trends by continually evolving into a multifaceted manufacturer of rolling stock, aircraft, and industrial plants.

Late 19th-Century Company Origins

Shipbuilding gave Kawasaki its start in the world of heavy industry. When Japan emerged from two centuries of isolation in the mid-1800s, its first need as an island nation was to develop a modern shipbuilding industry. The Meiji government at first attempted to run its own shipping lines, but when that effort failed, the government offered considerable subsidies and favorable leasing terms to anyone who cared to try to imitate the sleek Western steamship designs. Shozo Kawasaki was only too eager to accept the challenge. Born in 1836, Kawasaki had survived two maritime disasters as a young man. He attributed his survival to the technical superiority of Western ships in which he had been sailing, and decided to devote his life to bringing such innovations to Japanese shipping. In April 1878, he accordingly borrowed ¥30,000 and leased harbor land in Tokyo from the Japanese government to begin his own shipbuilding company. Kawasaki hired a bright young engineer and opened for business, but he soon discovered that Japanese shipping lines were reluctant to abandon their ancient sailing vessels and traditional style of doing business. After a long wait the new firm finally received its first order, for the 80-ton Hokkai Maru, and Kawasaki invited thousands of business and government leaders to view its christening. This early venture succeeded in announcing the company's arrival in the burgeoning Japanese industrial sector.

Before long Kawasaki had as much work as he could handle. When the Meiji government began divesting major shipbuilding facilities, it offered one to Kawasaki, who happily moved his operations from Tokyo to Hyogo in 1886 and named the company Kawasaki Dockyard. With the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 spurring demand for ships, Kawasaki went public in 1896 as Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Ltd. Its first president was 31-year-old Kojiro Matsukata, and Kawasaki himself remained with the company only as an adviser. Matsukata immediately ordered the construction of a new, vastly larger dry dock, which, upon completion in 1902, solidified Kawasaki's position as one of Japan's leading shipbuilders. At the same time, Matsukata bought up adjacent land and began a series of larger construction slips, increasing the company's building capacity from 6,000 to 31,000 gross tons. Both moves enabled Kawasaki to take advantage of various state subsidies with which the Japanese government encouraged industrial growth, but in a country lacking an industrial economy, it remained difficult for Kawasaki to get materials and parts. In most cases company engineers had to manufacture whatever they needed themselves, an inefficient but educational method of building modern steamships.

Expansion and Diversification in the Early Decades of the 20th Century

In 1906 Kawasaki opened a new factory to produce a variety of rolling stock--railroad cars, locomotives, and related parts. This was only the first of a series of such diversifications. The firm was soon not only building ships and railroad cars but also supplying its own steel plates and castings, as well as taking orders for large civil-engineering projects such as bridges. By the end of World War I, Kawasaki had, in addition, established itself as a maker of airplanes and automobiles, as it sought to keep pace with its heavy-industry rival, Mitsubishi. Kawasaki turned the relative backwardness of the Japanese economy to its advantage: it used the government's enforced education in the industrial arts to expand into new technologies as they found their way to Japan. This process accounts for the breadth of Kawasaki's current interests, and is similar to the development of other Japanese heavy-industry giants.

In the meantime, Kawasaki's shipbuilding business flourished. In 1907 the company introduced its first marine turbine engine, and shortly thereafter adopted German diesel technology. A chunk of the company's business involved naval contracts, like the 1905 construction of Japan's first submarine and the 1910 delivery of a 5,000-ton cruiser. These projects solidified Kawasaki's relationship with the Japanese navy, and in particular its role as a leading builder of submarines and anti-submarine aircraft. After weathering a brief recession, Kawasaki and Japanese shipbuilding as a whole enjoyed a boom during World War I, when the Allies turned with increasing frequency to the Japanese for their shipping requirements. The jump in orders raised production to 12 times the prewar high, with Kawasaki finishing 35 ships in 1918 alone and creating an entirely new class of standardized freighters weighing between 6,000 and 9,000 tons each. These stock boats were highly successful.

The postwar recession in shipbuilding proved to be unusually harsh. In addition to the natural decline in orders, an Allied-sponsored arms-limitation agreement of 1921 forced the cancellation of several large warships still in Kawasaki docks. Perhaps worst of all was the company's failure to cut production of stock boats quickly enough. The excess boats were unsold, and despite rapidly expanding business in its steel, aircraft, and civil-engineering divisions Kawasaki was soon in serious financial trouble. A 1927 bank run left the company without working capital and forced a major restructuring: the rolling stock division was spun off as a separate entity about 20 percent of the company's 16,000 employees were permanently laid off, and longtime President Matsukata retired to be replaced by Fusanosuke Kojima. These decisions had no sooner been reached than the Depression struck in 1929, necessitating a second round of bank negotiations and corporate reductions.

War pulled Japan out of the Depression in 1931, when that country invaded Manchuria. Along with plentiful government subsidies, the growing need for warships quickly reinvigorated Kawasaki. Between 1937, when China was invaded, and the 1945 Japanese surrender, Kawasaki's employees produced 109 warships, including four aircraft carriers and 35 submarines. Midway through the war the Japanese government essentially took control of the shipbuilding industry, establishing a set of six standard warships to be built under their direction as needed. It was a period of intense productivity at Kawasaki, which also supplied the war effort with aircraft from the newly founded Kawasaki Aircraft Company. Merchant shipping picked up as well. Japan's need for oil spurred the introduction of what would later grow into the supertanker. Kawasaki had built 21 of these by the end of the war in August 1945.

Rapid Growth in the Postwar Era

Losses suffered by Kawasaki at war's end amounted to more than ¥1.7 billion, and the company once again required a major restructuring. It shed its steel division--which, as Kawasaki Steel Corporation, remains one of the country's foremost steel producers--and wrote off much of its debt. At this juncture Kawasaki was composed only of the shipbuilding, engine, and electrical machinery divisions of the original entity, with rolling stock, aircraft, and steel all operating as separate companies.

Employment at Kawasaki had immediately dropped to less than 25 percent of its wartime peak, and the company was saddled with unpaid-for ships. The Kawasaki docks were still largely in one piece and functioning, however, and the company achieved prodigious postwar growth. For the first few years little was built, but with the growing perception of Communist China as a threat, the Allies encouraged Japan to rebuild its economy.

In August 1947 the Japanese government adopted the Programmed Shipbuilding Scheme, by which it directed the construction of new ships as needed while providing funds to the shipping lines to help them cover the purchase price. The scheme, which remains in effect, gave the shipbuilding industry the capital needed to restore productivity.

Thus fortified, Kawasaki resumed operations at all of its plants. Japan's shattered infrastructure promised work for a company with Kawasaki's construction capabilities, and its machinery, steel, and engine divisions were soon operating at full throttle. In particular, the Kawasaki steel division opened three new works and took the lead in Japanese sheet steel production. The shipbuilding business was flooded with more orders than it could handle.

Beginning with the Korean War in 1950 and continuing through to the oil embargo of 1973, Kawasaki and the rest of Japan's shipbuilders enjoyed nearly unbroken success. By the mid-1950s Japan had become the world's leading shipbuilder--a remarkable achievement for a country broken by war only ten years earlier--and as the national economy surged toward eventual world leadership, Kawasaki flexed its muscle in several fields. Growing oil dependence of industrialized countries created a lucrative market for supertankers, and Kawasaki was soon expert in building these largest of all ships. At the same time, Kawasaki was also filling construction orders for everything from a cement plant in Malaysia to a baseball stadium in Koshien, Japan, while improving its technical expertise in engine and machinery design. Many of the latter improvements were the results of working agreements with leading European and U.S. firms, as Kawasaki pursued its policy of international cooperation. The company early formed alliances with Escher Wyss of Switzerland and IMO Ltd. of Sweden, and later worked with aeronautical giants Lockheed, Boeing, Hughes, and Messerschmidt on a wide variety of civil and military projects.

Withdrawing from Shipbuilding in the 1970s

In 1969 the present Kawasaki Aircraft Heavy Industries was created by the reintegration of Kawasaki Aircraft and Kawasaki Rolling Stock with the original parent, Kawasaki Dockyard. The newly formed conglomerate suffered a blow in 1973 when the Arab oil embargo brought supertanker orders to an abrupt halt. In the years that followed, Japanese companies began a steady withdrawal from the shipbuilding field, and Kawasaki and the other big makers began shifting their energy to more promising, and less competitive, endeavors. The diversity of Kawasaki's portfolio at the time was one result of this massive shift. By the mid-1970s, shipping accounted for less than 10 percent of the company's revenue, lower than sales of leisure products such as motorcycles and jet skis. Its shipbuilding business began primarily to involve military and more exotic varieties of commercial vessels, as Kawasaki sought to avoid direct competition with Korea, the new price leader in merchant shipping.

In contrast, Kawasaki's machinery and construction division grew into the company's largest. Here Kawasaki built everything from factory robots to an ethylene plant in Bulgaria, and also offered bridges, tunnel-boring machines, and breeder-reactor research. Almost as large was the aircraft division, which undertook a significant number of projects for the Japanese Defense Agency and the national space program. In rolling stock, Kawasaki supplied the New York subway system with a set of stainless steel, graffiti-proof cars, while continuing to deliver some of Japan's fastest railroad trains. Add to these three divisions the company's old standby, as well as its newest addition--ships and leisure products--and investors saw a corporation capable of supplying modern civilization with most of its industrial needs.

New Strategies for Evolving Economies: 1980s-90s

In the 1980s, to counteract the negative impact of the declining yen on its export business, Kawasaki shifted its emphasis to the domestic market. By the early 1980s revenues from exports had dropped from 50 percent to 25 percent of the company's total sales. This shift in focus eventually paid off, and by 1990 Kawasaki was enjoying profit levels it had not seen in almost 15 years, with net earnings exceeding ¥20 billion for the first time since 1977, a 25 percent increase over earlier expectations. One major reason for the company's success was the surprising turnaround in its shipbuilding segment. In the face of a marked increase in global demand for new ships, the division had secured more than ¥100 billion worth of new contracts in the past year alone. Overall, Kawasaki Heavy Industries received more than ¥900 billion in new orders in the first three months of 1990, a 20 percent increase over the previous year.

Although the global shipping industry fell into a major slump in the mid-1990s, Kawasaki's shipbuilding division managed to remain profitable. Indeed, in 1994 Kawasaki Heavy Industries was the only leading Japanese shipbuilder to see a net earnings increase for the first half of the fiscal year. The company took further steps to firm up its market position in January 1995, when it struck a major agreement with its longtime strategic partner in China, the China Ocean Shipping Co. Under the terms of the contract, the largest in Kawasaki's history, the company would build six containerships worth more than $83 million apiece. Among the largest vessels of their kind ever built, the containerships would each span nearly 1,000 feet in length, and have a cargo capacity of more than 5,000 20-foot containers.

Still, the long-term profitability of new shipbuilding contracts remained in doubt. The industry-wide trend toward overcapacity, combined with aggressive competition from shipbuilders in South Korea, left Kawasaki struggling to earn consistent profits with its ships. The company once again announced higher than expected profits in mid-1996, but its shipbuilding sector saw an overall loss. Although market fluctuations briefly drove the shipbuilding line into profitability in the second half of 1996, by the following year it had entered a definitive, prolonged slump, forcing the company to ponder a more radical approach to the problem.

A New Business Model for the 21st Century

The company incurred losses in fiscal years 1999 and 2000, much of these connected to restructuring costs, as well as to slumping revenues in its aerospace and general machinery divisions. By May 2000, with its shipbuilding segment in serious debt, Kawasaki began to consider whether or not it should spin off the division. At the same time, the early years of the 21st century witnessed a growing trend toward consolidation in the Japanese shipping industry. Clearly, the company had several routes it could take.

In April 2001, hoping to preserve some stake in its shipbuilding operations, the company entered into an agreement with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., to form a joint shipping venture by May of the following year. Under the terms of the deal, the companies planned to reduce operating costs by between ¥7 billion and ¥8 billion per year, with an eye toward achieving profits of ¥4 billion to ¥5 billion by 2004. By the fall of that year, however, the companies abruptly terminated the deal, citing difficulties coming to acceptable terms.

For 2001, higher sales and reduced operational costs helped Kawasaki earn ¥6.28 billion, its first profit in four years. Perhaps more significant, the company's shipbuilding division enjoyed net gains of ¥5.6 billion, compared to losses of ¥1.7 billion the previous year. Part of the turnaround came from increased demand for the company's liquefied natural gas carriers. Although Kawasaki saw another significant profit increase in 2002, it fell back into the red the following year. While much of this abrupt turnaround came as a result of a cut in the company's deferred tax assets, the slide was in part due to the continued volatility of the global shipbuilding industry. With the future of this time-honored division in question, in 2004 it remained to be seen how the company would come to a long-term resolution of the problem.

Principal Subsidiaries: Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation NIPPI Corporation Kawasaki Thermal Engineering Co., Ltd. Kawasaki Motors Corporation Japan Kawasaki Precision Machinery Ltd. Kawasaki Safety Service Industries, Ltd. Kawaju Shoji Co., Ltd. Kawasaki Setsubi Kogyo Co., Ltd. Kawasaki Heavy Industries (U.S.A.), Inc. Kawasaki Rail Car, Inc. Kawasaki Robotics (U.S.A.), Inc. Kawasaki Motors Corp., U.S.A. Kawasaki Motors Manufacturing Corp., U.S.A. Kawasaki Construction Machinery Corp. of America Canadian Kawasaki Motors Inc. Kawasaki do Brasil Industria e Comercio Ltda. Kawasaki Aeronautica do Brasil Industria Ltda. Kawasaki Heavy Industries (U.K.) Ltd. Kawasaki Precision Machinery (U.K.) Limited Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd. Kawasaki Heavy Industries G.m.b.H. Kawasaki Gas Turbine Europe G.m.b.H. Kawasaki Robotics G.m.b.H. Kawasaki Heavy Industries (Europe) B.V. KHI Europe Finance B.V. Kawasaki Motors Europe N.V. Kawasaki Machine Systems Korea, Ltd. Wuhan Kawasaki Marine Machinery Co., Ltd. Shanghai Cosco Kawasaki Heavy Industries Steel Structure Co., Ltd. Nantong Cosco KHI Ship Engineering Co., Ltd. Kawasaki Heavy Industries (H.K.) Ltd. (Hong Kong) Kawasaki Motors Enterprise (Thailand) Co., Ltd. KHI Design & Technical Service Inc. (Singapore) Kawasaki Motors (Phils.) Corporation Kawasaki Heavy Industries (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. P.T. Kawasaki Motor Indonesia Kawasaki Motors Pty. Ltd. (Australia).

Principal Competitors: Deere and Company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Toyota Tsusho Corporation.

  • Chida, Tomohei, and Peter N. Davies, The Japanese Shipping and Shipbuilding Industries, London: The Athlone Press, 1990.
  • Flynn, Matthew, "Kawasaki Heavy Yard Spin-Off Plan Welcomed," Lloyd's List , May 11, 2000.
  • "Kawasaki Heavy Bullish in Spite of Stronger Yen," Nikkei Weekly (Japan), July 15, 2002.
  • "Kawasaki Heavy Only Shipbuilder with Profits, Sales Up," Japan Economic Newswire , October 28, 1994.
  • Magnier, Mark, "Kawasaki Heavy Industries Lands $500 Million Cosco Deal," Journal of Commerce , January 4, 1995.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol.63. St. James Press, 2004.


Kawasaki Ki-22 - History

In demand, innovative products

Hand built quality assembly

Start to finish die-casting process

3D Modeling Technology

Piece by piece production

Clean, ergonomic machine lines

Watch A Video: Kawasaki Maryville Tour

KAWASAKI MARYVILLE: POWER BUILT HERE

  • Posted: February 16, 2018 - The Engine Plant That CouldLee mas.
    As economic engines go, the Kawasaki plant in Maryville, Missouri, has few rivals. This thought is not lost on anyone observing what has become of a factory that first opened in 1989 with 150 workers producing a single model of its product — an actual small engine.

Maryville, MO- City Hall has continued to work with local businesses and industries, notably Kawasaki Motors Manufacturing Corp., which provided $2.2 million in company funds.


Ver el vídeo: Kawasaki Ki-61 Tony CAS-AC-091-3 (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Gobha

    ¡Bueno, sí! ¡No cuentes cuentos de hadas!

  2. Azekel

    No funciona

  3. Kaeden

    Es una pena que no pueda hablar ahora, tengo que irme. Pero seré libre, definitivamente escribiré lo que pienso en este tema.

  4. Jooseppi

    SÚPER cuento de hadas!



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